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2012-13 Points of Emphasis

Posted by | June 22, 2012 .

National Federation of State High School Associations

2012-13 Points of Emphasis

(Click here for original PDF)

1.     Closely guarded situations.  Well officiated closely-guarded situations provide for better balance between offense and defense.  When the closely-guarded rules are not followed properly, there is a significant advantage for the offense.  The following areas should be emphasized:

a.     Rule basics.  A closely-guarded situation occurs when a player in control of the ball in his or her team’s frontcourt is guarded by an opponent who is within 6 feet or the player who is holding or dribbling the ball; the defensive player must obtain a legal guarding position.  A player shall not hold the ball for five seconds or dribble the ball for five seconds while closely guarded in the frontcourt.  A player can legally hold the ball while closely guarded for four seconds, dribble the ball for four seconds and hold the ball again for four seconds before violating.

b.    Multiple defenders.  The closely guarded count should continue even if there is a defensive switch, provided the 6-foot distance is maintained by one or more defenders.  There is no requirement for the defender to remain the same during the count as long as the offensive player is closely guarded throughout.  The closely- guarded count ends when no defensive player is within 6 feet.

2.     Contact above the shoulders.  With a continued emphasis on reducing concussions and decreasing excessive contact situations the committee determined that more guidance is needed for penalizing contact above the shoulders.

a.    A player shall not swing his/her arm(s) or elbow(s) even without contacting an opponent.  Excessive swinging of the elbows occurs when arms and elbows are swung about while using the shoulders as pivots, and the speed of the extended arms and elbows is in excess of the rest of the body as it rotates on the hips or on the pivot foot.   Currently it is a violation in Rule 9 Section 13 Article.

b.    Examples of illegal contact above the shoulders and resulting penalties.

1.     Contact with a stationary elbow may be incidental or a common foul.

2.    An elbow in movement but not excessive should be an intentional foul.

3.    A moving elbow that is excessive can be either an intentional foul or flagrant personal foul.

3.     Intentional Fouls.  The committee is concerned about the lack of enforcement for intentional

fouls during any part of the game but especially at the end of a game.  The intentional foul rule has devolved into misapplication and personal interpretations.  An intentional foul is a personal or technical foul that neutralizes an opponent’s obvious advantageous position.  Contact away from the ball or when not making a legitimate attempt to play the ball, specifically designed to stop or keep the clock from starting, shall be intentional.  Intentional fouls may or may not be premeditated and are not based solely on the severity of the act.  A foul also shall be ruled intentional if while playing the ball a player causes excessive contact with an opponent.

a.     Anytime during the game.  Acts that neutralize an opponent’s obvious advantageous position and must be deemed intentional include:

1.    Excessive contact on any player attempting a try

2.    Grabbing or shoving a player from behind when an easy basket may be scored

3.    Grabbing and holding a player from behind or away from the ball

These are “non-basketball acts” and must be considered intentional fouls

b.     Game awareness.  The probability of fouling late in the game is an accepted coaching strategy and is utilized by many coaches in some form.  Officials must have the courage to enforce the intentional foul rule properly.

4.    Guidelines to enforce illegal contact.  Escalating fight situations can often be traced back to illegal contact not being properly enforced and penalized.   Examples of illegal contact are:

a.    Hand checking.  Any tactic using hands or arms that allows a player on offense or defense to control the movement of an opposing player.

Examples of hand checking foul.

1.  Both hands on an opposing player

2.  Jabbing a hand or forearm on an opponent.

3. Continuous contact by a hand or forearm on an opponent

b. Post play.  Any tactic using hands, arms or body to control the movement of an opposing player.

Examples of illegal post play.

1.  Hooking by the offensive player

2.  Pushing, holding or slapping an opponent

3.  Dislodging an opponent by using a leg or knee to the rear of an opponent

4.  Dislodging an opponent by backing them down

c. Rebounding.  Any activity to illegally gain rebounding position on an opponent.

Examples of illegal rebounding activity.

1.  Displace, charge or push and opponent

2.  Extend the arms or elbows to impede the movement of an opponent

3.  Using the hips or knees to hinder or impede an opponent

4.  Violation of the principle of verticality

5.  Contact between players in free throw lane spaces prior to the ball contacting the ring

a. It is illegal to physically contact an opponent prior to the ball legally contacting the ring.